An Age of Agony: The Great War and the Spanish Flu

During the latter half of the 1910s, the world was plunged into an era of misery.

World War I (1914 – 1918) destroyed life and property on a massive scale.

The Battle of the Somme, 1916, one of the largest battles
Battle of the Somme

65 million people joined the fight, despite grim survival odds. A World War I soldier stood a roughly 50/50 chance of returning home alive, with their physical health intact:

  • Est. 9.5 million troops killed (roughly the combined populations of present-day Denmark and Morocco)
  • Est. 21 million troops injured
  • Est. 6.5 million civilians killed during the war (roughly the combined populations of present-day Switzerland and Chile)
No Man's Land
No Man’s Land on the French front

Those lucky enough to survive the conflict and return home were rarely unscathed: missing eyes and limbs were very common, as were burns. Yet shell shock – the significant psychological reaction to the terrors of the front – was not considered to be an injury and is excluded from statistics.

 

gas mask
The gas mask, patent 1914, protected soldiers from mustard gas

Soldiers who suffered from shell shock often did not receive the treatment they needed because the problem was not understood – even by most doctors. This short, disturbing video highlights the plight of men returning from the front with this terrible problem.

 

In 1918, with the menacing shadow  of the war receding, a deadly new pandemic took hold of the world. The Spanish flu (1918 – 1920) lasted two years and dwarfed the casualties from the war.  Ordinary flu kills less than .1% of people who catch it. The mortality rate of the Spanish flu was appalling at 2.5%, with most casualties occurring in three waves. Though it attacked indiscriminately, the flu was far more likely to kill a young, healthy person than children or the elderly.

At least 20% of the world’s population was infected, and an estimated 40 million people died of influenza. More people died during each year of the Spanish flu pandemic than were killed during the whole of Europe’s terrible Bubonic Plague (1347 – 1351).

Soldiers from Fort Riley, Kansas, ill with Spanish influenza at a hospital ward at Camp Funston
Army photograph of soldiers infected with Spanish flu in Fort Riley, Kansas

Americans were hard-hit: 28% of the population contracted the illness and the impact was so severe that the average life span of an American decreased by 10 years. President Woodrow Wilson even caught the flu (he recovered).

The name of the virus originated with the wartime censors, who tried to minimize the flu’s spread and severity to avoid demoralizing troops. Reporters made no attempt to disguise the impact to neutral Spain however. The King of Spain, Alfonso XIII, became seriously ill with the flu, drawing extra attention.

Alfonso XIII
Alfonso XIII

Spain understandably did not appreciate having a pandemic namesake, nor the implication that the flu was worse in their country than anywhere else. So in Spain only, the flu was called Soldado de Nápoles (the Naples Soldier) after a song from an operetta that premiered in Madrid in 1918. One of the operetta’s stars wryly joked the music was “as catchy as the flu”. In recent years, researchers found the flu likely originated in Étaples, France, at a hospital camp.

Red Cross photo
Civilians and Red Cross nurses were required to wear masks to prevent the spread of the flu

It’s worth noting how terribly the French people suffered during these years. The country had a population of 40 million in 1914. During the next six years, approximately 4.2 million were wounded in the war; another 1.8 million were killed in the war or by the flu. Much of the war was fought in France, ravaging their economy and food supply. Dozens of villages and landmarks were destroyed, including the beautiful St. Quentin Cathedral, which took 200 years to build.

Destroyed cathedral
Walter Koessler, a lieutenant in the German army, captured this photograph of the destroyed St. Quentin cathedral.

Between the war and the flu, an estimated 65 million people (4% of the world’s population) perished. The Roaring 20s – a decade known for its fun, extravagance, and joyful shedding of old conventions – was a counter-reaction to the misery of the 1910s, an affirmation of the human spirit that cannot be crushed, come what will.

Life Magazine cover July 1 1926
Life Magazine cover
July 1 1926
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One thought on “An Age of Agony: The Great War and the Spanish Flu

  1. The Spanish Flu weather tragedy of a magnitude that we cannot possibly imagine It was mysterious in the way that it primarily affected otherwise healthy young people and its virulence.You could become sick in the morning and be dead that evening.
    I have a theory on how that virus developed in France. The Western Front was a witches brew a decaying bodies, excrement, explosive residues and let’s not forget the chemical warfare agents. This cauldron was stirred by repeated shelling, with fresh ingredients constantly added. So a virus envolved in this biochemical muck that developed a “taste” for young flesh. And it killed its victims quickly, just like at the front.
    Much more scientific inquiry is needed on this, but that’s my theory so far.

    Like

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